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How can we argue for God's existence and unity in a way everyone can understand?

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate.

So God sets forth parables for men in order that they may bear (them) in mind and take lessons (through them). (14:25)

Such parables do we set forth for men so that they may reflect.(59:21)

The existence of God is too evident to need any arguments

The existence of God is too evident to need any arguments. Some saintly scholars have even stated that God is more manifest than any other being, but that those who lack insight cannot see Him. Others have said that He is concealed from direct perception because of the intensity of His Self-manifestation.

However, the great influence of positivist and materialist schools of thought on science and on all people of recent centuries makes it necessary to discuss such arguments. As this now-prevalent “scientific” worldview reduces existence to what can be perceived directly, it blinds itself to those invisible dimensions of existence that far vaster than the visible. To remove the resulting veil, we will review briefly several traditional demonstrations of God’s necessary existence.

Before doing so, let us reflect on one simple historical fact: Since the beginning of human life, the overwhelming majority of humanity has believed that God exists. This belief alone is enough to establish God’s existence. Those who do not believe cannot claim to be smarter than those who do. Among past and present-day believers are innovative scientists, scholars, researchers and, most importantly, saints and Prophets, who are the experts in the field. In addition, people usually confuse the non-acceptance of something’s existence with the acceptance of its non-existence. While the former is only a negation or a rejection, the latter is a judgment that requires proof. No one has ever proven God’s non-existence, for to do so is impossible, whereas countless arguments prove His existence. This point may be clarified through the following comparison.

Suppose there is a large palace with 1,000 entrances, 999 of which are open and one which appears to be closed. No one could reasonably claim that the palace cannot be entered. Unbelievers are like those who, in order to assert that the palace cannot be entered, confine their (and others’) attention only to the door that is seemingly closed.

The doors to God’s existence are open to everybody, provided that they sincerely intend to enter through them. Some of those doors—the demonstrations for God’s existence—are as follows by way of a parable:

A parable to understand God’s Existence and Unity

Once two men washed themselves in a pool. Then, under some extraordinary influence they fell into a trance-like state and when they opened their eyes, they found themselves in a strange land. It was a land in perfect orderliness and harmony—as it might be a well-ordered state, or a single city, or even a palace. They looked around in utmost amazement: from one point of view, it was a vast world; from another, a well-ordered state; from yet another, a splendid city. If it was looked at from still another point of view, it was a palace though one that was in itself a magnificent world. They traveled around this strange world and saw that there were creatures of diverse sorts speaking a language they did not know. However, as could be gathered from their gestures, they were doing important work, carrying out significant duties.

One of the two men said to his friend:

This strange world must have someone to administer it; this well-ordered state must have a lord, and this splendid city, an owner, and this skillfully made palace, a master builder. We must try to know him, for it is understood that the one who brought us here is he. If we do not know him, who else will help us here? What can we expect from those impotent creatures whose language we do not know and who do not heed us? Moreover, certainly one who has made a huge world in the form of a state, or a city, or a palace, and filled it from top to bottom with wonderful things, and embellished it with every sort of adornment, and decorated it with instructive miracles, wants something from us and from whoever comes here. We must know him, and find out what he wants.

The other man objected:

I do not believe that there is such a one as you speak of, and that he governs this whole world alone by himself.

His friend responded to him:

If we do not recognize him and remain indifferent towards him, there is no advantage in it at all, but it may be very harmful, whereas if we try to recognize him, there is little hardship in it, but it may be very beneficial. Therefore, it is in no way sensible to remain indifferent towards him.

The other man insisted:

I find all my ease and enjoyment in not thinking of him. Besides, I am not to bother myself with things like this which do not concern me. These are all confused things happening by chance or by themselves.  They are no concern of mine.

His intelligent friend replied:

This obstinacy of yours will get us and many others into trouble. It sometimes happens that a whole state is ruined because of one ill-mannered person.

The other man turned to him and said:

Either prove to me decisively that this vast country has a single lord, a single maker, or leave me to myself.

In reply, his friend explained:

Your obstinacy has reached the point of insanity, and through it you will bring upon us a great calamity.  So I will show you twelve proofs that this world, which is like a palace, this state which is like a city, has a single master builder, and that it is only he who administers it. He must be completely free of all deficiency. This builder, who is invisible to us, must be seeing us and everything, and hearing all voices. All his works seem miraculous. All these creatures whom we see but whose languages we do not understand must be his officials [working in his name].

A hidden hand is working in everything

Come and look around! Be attentive to whatever is happening! In all these things a hidden hand is working. For something which has not even an ounce of strength (a tiny seed) is bearing loads of thousands of pounds (a huge tree). Something that has no consciousness at all (a bee, a silkworm) is doing much intelligent and purposive work. That means they are not working on their own. A powerful, hidden one is causing them to work. If everything were happening on its own, it would require that all the work which we see being done everywhere in this place must be itself a miracle and everything a miracle-working marvel.

If all people came together, they would not be able to produce a single seed or leaf or fruit

Come and be attentive to the things with which all these plains, fields, and residential places are adorned! On each of them are marks pointing to that hidden one. Like a seal or stamp, each gives news of him. Look, what he is producing before you from a few grams of cotton! See how many rolls of cloth, linen and flowered material have come out of it!  See how much sweet food and how many other sorts of delights are being made. (Consider how, for example, a poppy seed as tiny as a particle, or an apricot stone the weight of a few grams, or a melon seed, each produce from the treasury of Mercy woven leaves more beautiful than broadcloth, flowers whiter or yellower than linen, and fruits sweeter than sugar, and finer and more delicious than conserves, and they offer them to us.) If thousands of people like us were to clothe themselves from these or eat of those, they would never be able to do that. Again, look! He has taken a handful of iron, earth, water, coal, copper, silver, and gold, and made some living creatures out of them. (This refers to the creation of animal bodies from elements, and living creatures from sperm.) Look and see!  These sorts of work are particular to one such that he holds all this land together with all its parts under his miraculous power and all submissive to his will.

An individual animal or human being, even a seed, is a miniature specimen of the whole universe

Come and look at these priceless, moving works of art! Each has been fashioned in such a way that it is simply a miniature specimen of this huge palace. Whatever there is in this palace, it is found in these tiny moving machines. Is it at all possible that someone other than the builder of this amazing palace has included the whole of it in a tiny machine? Again, is it at all possible that chance or something purposeless could have intervened in the machine the size of a box which contains a whole world? That means that however many artistically fashioned machines you can see, each is like a seal of that hidden one. Each is also like a herald or proclamation. In their language of being they announce: ‘We are the works of art of one such as can make this entire world of ours as easily as he made us.’

Every thing is interconnected with every thing, needs every thing and comes to the aid of every thing

O obstinate friend! Come, I will show you something stranger. Look! All the things in this land do not persist in one state: they are all changing. Notice that each of these lifeless bodies and unfeeling ‘bones’ have started to move toward certain purposes, as if each thing were ruling all the others. Look at this machine beside us! (Referring to fruit-bearing trees. For, as if bearing on their slender branches hundreds of looms and factories, they weave wonderful, richly adorned leaves, flowers and fruits and then cook fruits to offer to us. On the other hand, majestic trees like the pine and cedar have set up their workbenches on hard, dry rock, and work.) It is as though it was issuing commands and all the materials necessary for its adornment and functioning were running to it from distant places. Look over there:  that seemingly lifeless body is as though beckoning; it makes the biggest bodies serve it and work for it (Referring to grains, seeds, and the eggs of flies. For example, a fly leaves its eggs on the leaves of an elm tree. All of a sudden the huge tree turns its leaves into another’s womb, and a cradle, and into a store full of honey-like food. It is as if the tree, which is not fruit-bearing, produces fruit which is animate.). You may compare the rest with these.

Everything seems to have subjugated to itself all the creatures in the world

Everything seems to have subjugated to itself all the creatures in the world. If you do not accept the existence of that hidden one, you will have to attribute all his skills, arts, and perfection to the stones, earth, animals, and creatures resembling man everywhere in this land to the things themselves. In place of a single miracle-working being, whose existence in your mind seems improbable, millions like him have to exist, who are miracle-working, and all opposed to one another, and yet similar and one within the other, without causing any confusion and spoiling the order. Whereas if two rulers intervene in the affairs of a state they cause confusion. For if there are two head-men in a village, or two governors in a town, or two kings in a country, chaos arises. So what of the existence of absolute rulers in infinite number in the same place at the same time?

How can all those purposeful ornaments, splendid embroideries and artistic inscriptions be attributed to unconscious causes, blind chance and deaf nature?

O skeptical friend! Come and look carefully at the ornaments of this huge palace, look at the adornments of the city, see the orderliness in this land, and reflect on all the artistry in this world! Look! Assume the pen of a hidden one with infinite miracles and skills is not at work, or that all these ornaments are attributed to unconscious causes, to blind chance and deaf nature. Then all the stones and plains of this land will have to be each a decorator so miracle-working and an inscriber so wonderful that each can write a thousand books in a letter, and display infinitely different forms of artistry in a single ornament. For look at the inscriptions on these stones; on each are the inscriptions of the whole palace, the laws for the order of the whole city, and the programs for the organization of the whole state. That means that to make all these inscriptions is as wonderful as making the whole state. So, each inscription, each instance of art, is a proclamation of that hidden one, and one of his seals.

A letter certainly indicates the one who wrote it, and an artistic inscription undoubtedly makes known the inscriber. How is it, then, that an inscriber, a designer, a decorator, who inscribes a huge book in a single letter and displays a thousand ornaments in a single ornament, should not be known through his inscriptions and ornaments?

Existence is continually renewed with no single confusion and disorderliness

Come, we’ll go out onto this vast plain. On it is a huge mountain, the top of which we will climb so that we can see all the surrounding area. Also, we will take binoculars with us to make distant objects seem nearer.  For in this strange land curious things are happening; every hour things are happening that we have never imagined.

Look! These mountains, plains, and towns are suddenly changing. They are changing so that millions of new things take place with perfect orderliness one within the other and one after the other. The most curious transformations take place as though various cloths of innumerable kinds are being woven inside and among others. Look, the flowery things, with which we have been so familiar, have disappeared; these have been replaced in orderly fashion with others of similar nature but of different form. Everything is happening in a manner as if these plains and mountains are each a page, and on them are being written hundreds of thousands of different books.  They are being written without any flaw, without any defect.

Thus, it is inconceivable that these things come about on their own. For these things displaying infinite instances of art and skill, and exactness of an infinite degree, to happen of themselves is utterly inconceivable, for rather than themselves, they show the artist who brings them about.  The one who does all these things displays such miracles that nothing at all can be difficult for him. It is as easy for him to write one thousand books as to write one book.

An absolute wisdom and all-encompassing favoring are manifest in existence

Again, look all around you! He puts everything in just its proper place with such wisdom, and on everyone needy and deserving he pours his favor so generously, and he draws back and opens general veils and doors so bountifully, that he satisfies the desires of all. Also, he lays out tables, so munificently that a feast of bounties is given to all the people and animals of this land, indeed, bounties particular and suitable for each group and individual. (Referring to the face of the earth in spring and summer, when innumerable individuals of hundreds of thousands of species are brought into existence one among the others, they are ‘written’ on earth. They are recruited and may undergo changes without flaw and with perfect orderliness. Thousands of tables of the Most merciful One are laid out, then removed, and replaced with fresh ones. All the trees are as though bear trays. All the gardens are like cauldrons.)

So, is there anything more inconceivable of this world than that anything in all that we observe could be attributable to chance, or that anything in it could be purposeless or vain or that many hands should be interfering in it? Could it be otherwise than that their maker is powerful over everything, and that everything is subjugated to him? So, O friend, in the face of all this, find, if you can, a pretext to persist in denial of that unseen one!

All the things in this world, as if all positioned face to face, help one another. As though seeing one another, they co-operate with one another. In order to perfect each other’s work, they support one another, and work together.

Come, friend! Leaving these particular matters, we will turn our attention to the mutual interrelations of the parts of this amazing world in the form of a palace. Look! Universal things are being done and general revolutions taking place with such perfect orderliness that all the rocks, earth, and trees in this palace act in accordance with the general rules of this world as if each were free to do whatever it wills. Things that are most distant from one another come to each other’s aid. Look! A strange caravan has appeared, coming from the unseen on mounts resembling trees, plants, and mountains. They are carrying trays of food on their heads. Look! They are bringing the food for the various animals waiting on this side. (Referring to ‘caravans’ of plants and trees bearing the sustenance of all animals.) Look, again! That mighty electric lamp (the sun) in that dome, besides furnishing them with light, cooks their food so well that the food to be cooked is attached to a string by an unseen hand and held out and offered. (The string and the food attached to it denote the slender branches of trees and the delicious fruits thereon.) Look on this side and see these impotent, weak, defenseless little animals; over their heads are arranged small pumps like two springs, full of delicate sustenance. They have only to press their mouths against the ‘pumps’ to be fed. (Referring to the breasts of mothers.)

In short: All the things in this world, as if all positioned face to face, help one another. As though seeing one another, they co-operate with one another. In order to perfect each other’s work, they support one another, and work together. The ways of co-operation among them are too numerous to count. All these things demonstrate as decisively as two plus two makes four that everything is subjugated to the builder of that wonderful palace, that is, to the owner of this strange world. Everything works on behalf of him; everything is like a soldier carrying out his commands. Everything takes place by his power. Everything moves by his command. Everything is arranged through his wisdom. Everything helps the others by his munificence. Everything hastens, rather, is made to hasten, to the aid of the others through his compassion. O friend, raise an objection to this, if you can!

In this palace of the world are uniform elements and minerals (namely earth, water, air, and light) which encompass the whole world: everything appearing in the world is made from them. That means that whoever owns them also owns everything made from them.

Come, O friend who supposes himself to be intelligent as does my own selfhood! You do not want to recognize the owner of this magnificent palace. Whereas everything points to him, shows him, and testifies to him, how can you deny the testimony of all these things? You have therefore to deny the palace as well, and say: ‘There is no world, no state!’ Deny your existence, too, and disappear! Or else come to your senses, and listen to me!

Look! In the palace are uniform elements and minerals, which encompass the whole of the land: everything appearing in the world is made from them. That means that whoever owns them also owns everything made from them; whoever owns the field owns its crops also; to whomever the sea belongs,  to him also the things in the sea belong. (Elements and minerals denote the elements of air, water, light, and earth, which perform numerous systematic duties: they hasten by Divine leave to the aid of all needy beings, enter everywhere by Divine command and provide help, convey the necessities of life, and ‘suckle’ living creatures, and function as the source, origin and cradle for the weaving and decoration of Divine artifacts.)

Again, look! These textiles, these decorated woven clothes are made from a single substance. It is evidently the same person who brings about the substance, prepares it, and makes it into yarn. For such a work would not allow the participation of others. Therefore, all the things skillfully woven out of it are particular to him.

Also, look! All types of those woven things are found in every part of the land; they are being made all together, one inside or among the others, in the same way, and at the same instant. That means they are the work of a single person, who does everything with a single command. Otherwise their correspondence and conformity at the same instant, in the same fashion, of the same quality, would be impossible. So, each of these skillfully made things is like a proclamation of that hidden one and points to him. It is as if each kind of flowered cloth, each machine that has skillfully been made, each delicious morsel, is a stamp, a seal, a sign of that miracle-working one. Each one is saying in the language of its being: ‘Whoever owns me as a work of art, also owns the boxes and shops where I am found.’ Each decoration says: ‘Whoever embroidered me also wove the roll of cloth in which I am.’ Each delicious morsel says: ‘Whoever cooked me also has the cooking-pot in which I am.’ Each machine says:  ‘Whoever made me also makes all those like me that are found everywhere in the land, and the one who raises us in every part of the land is also the same. That means it is also the same person who owns the land. Therefore, whoever owns this land, this palace, must own us, too.’ This is because, for example, in order to be the real owner of a single cartridge-belt or even a button belonging to the state, one also has to own all the factories in which they are made. If an outrageous irregular claims ownership of it, it will be taken back from him, and he will be punished because of his false pretending to the property right of the state.

In short:  If each element in this land has permeated through every other, encompassing the whole, their owner can only be the one who owns all the land. Since the instances of art found everywhere in the land resemble one another and display the one same stamp, then all the things that have spread throughout the land are evidently the works of a single person’s art and he rules over everything.

There are certain things which are uniform, without like, and of the same nature, yet all-encompassing. Certain other things, though various and in great number, display a unity of grouping since they resemble one another and are found everywhere. This points to a single owner of the world.

Thus, O friend, since there is a sign of oneness, a stamp of unity in this land, in this magnificent palace—it is so because there are certain things which are uniform, without like, and of the same nature, yet all-encompassing. Certain other things, though various and in great number, display a unity of grouping since they resemble one another and are found everywhere—unity declares the one of unity. That means that the builder, the host, and the owner, of this land must be one and the same. In addition, look attentively: see how, from behind the veil of the Unseen, a thick string Then look, see how thousands of strings have hung down from it. See the tips of the strings: diamonds, decorations, favors, and gifts have been attached to each. There is a gift particular to everyone. (The string and the things attached to it denote the slender branches of trees and the delicious fruits thereon has appeared.) Do you know how great a foolishness it is not to recognize and not to thank the one who stretches out from behind the strange veil of the Unseen such wonderful favors and gifts?  For if you do not recognize him, you will have to argue: ‘It is the strings themselves which make the diamonds and other gifts on their tips, and offer them.’ In which case, you will have to attribute to each string the status and function of a king [who has a miraculous power and knowledge to do whatever he wishes]. Whereas, before our very eyes, an unseen hand is making the strings themselves, and attaching the gifts to them. That means that everything in this palace points to that miracle-working one rather than to itself.  If you do not recognize him, by denying all these things happening in the palace, you will display stupidity of a kind that a truly human being must not sink to.

If we recognize the single owner of the world, the, this world and whatever there is in it in such abundance, will be as easy to understand as a single thing in it. If we do not recognize him, then a single thing will be as difficult to explain as the whole world, because everything is as skillfully made as the world.

Come, O friend!  You do not recognize the owner of this palace, and you do not want to recognize him, because you deem his existence improbable. You deviate into denial because you cannot grasp his wonderful arts and manner of acting. Whereas it is infinitely difficult, even impossible, to explain all these exquisite things, this wonderful existence, without recognizing him. For if we recognize him, all this palace, this world, and whatever there is in it in such abundance, will be as easy to understand as a single thing in it. If we do not recognize him, and if he did not exist, then a single thing will be as difficult to explain as the whole palace, because everything is as skillfully made as the palace. Things would not be in such abundance and so economical. No one, including ourselves, could possess any of these things that we see. Look just at the jar of conserve attached to that string (The jar of conserve denotes the gifts of mercy such as melons, water melons, pomegranates, and coconuts like tins of milk, which are each a conserve of Divine Power.) If it had not been made in his hidden kitchen, where everything is made miraculously, we could not have bought it for all we have, while we buy it now for a few cents.

In truth, every kind of persisting difficulty and impossibility follows from not recognizing him. For, since a tree is given life from one root, through one law, in one center, the formation of thousands of fruits is as easy as that of one fruit. If the formation of fruits had been dependent on different, particular centers and roots, and on separate, particular laws, then each fruit would have been as difficult to form as the tree. Also, if the equipment of a whole army is produced in one factory, through one law, and in one center, it will be as easy as equipping a single soldier. If, on the contrary, the equipment of each soldier is procured from all different places, then to equip one soldier there would have to be as many factories as for the whole army.

Just as in these two examples, so too in this well-organized palace, this splendid city, this progressive state, this magnificent world, if the invention of all these things is attributed to a single being, it becomes so easy to account for the infinite abundance, availability, and munificence that we see. Otherwise everything would become so costly, so difficult, that the whole world would not suffice for purchasing a single thing.

In no way can we have been left to ourselves; we cannot wander about and cause disorder among creatures so delicate, well-balanced, subtle, skillfully made, and instructive as these.

Come, O friend, from whom I expect some fairness! We have been here for fifteen days (An allusion to the age of fifteen, the age of responsibility.) If we do not know the rules of this world and do not recognize its rules, we will deserve punishment. We have no longer been left any excuses, because for fifteen days, as though given respite, we have not been interfered with. But in no way can we have been left to ourselves; we cannot wander about and cause disorder among creatures so delicate, well-balanced, subtle, skillfully made, and instructive as these. The punishment of the majestic lord of this land must be severe. How majestic and powerful he must be to have arranged this huge world like a palace and turn it as though a light wheel. He administers this vast country like a house, missing nothing. See, like filling a container and then emptying it, he continuously fills this palace, this city, this land, with perfect orderliness, and empties it with perfect wisdom. Also, like setting up a table and then removing it, he lays out, as though with an unseen hand, throughout the land, diverse tables with a great variety of foods one after the other and then clears them away to bring new ones. (The tables are to denote the face of the earth in summer, during which hundreds of tables of the Most Merciful One are prepared fresh and different in the kitchens of mercy, and they are laid down and then removed continuously. Every garden is a cooking-pot, every tree, a tray-bearer.) You see this too, and if you use your reason, you will understand that there is an infinite munificence inherent in that awesome majesty.

As whatever is and takes place in this world testifies to its single owner and administrator’s existence, their disappearance and replaced by their likes indicates his permanence

Also see, just as all these things testify to the unity and sovereignty of that unseen being, so too these revolutions and changes that happen one after the other in succession bear witness to his permanence. For the causes of things disappear along with them, whereas the things which we attribute to causes are repeated after them. That means, nothing can be attributed to causes; everything takes place as the work of an undying one.  For example, the sparkling bubbles on the surface of a river come and go, but the new ones coming after them also sparkle. That means, what makes them sparkle is something constant which stands high above the river and has a permanent light. In the same way, the speedy changing in this world and the things that replace the disappearing ones assuming the same attributes show that they are the manifestations, inscriptions, mirrors and works of art, of a single one who is permanent and undying.

The Prophet Muhammad is the greatest proof of the Creator’s Existence and Oneness

Come, O friend! Now I will show you another decisive proof as powerful as the previous ten proofs put together. Come and let us go on a ship and sail to that peninsula over there. For the keys to this mysterious world are there. Moreover, everyone is looking to that peninsula, and expecting something and receiving orders from there. See, we are sailing towards there. Now we have landed on the peninsula.  Look, there is a huge meeting, as if all the important people of the country have gathered there, there is a great concourse. Look carefully, this great community has a leader! (The ship refers to history, the peninsula to the place of Time of Happiness, the age of the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings. Taking off the dress of modern civilization on the dark shore of this age, sailing on the ship of history over the sea of time and landing on the Arabian Peninsula in the Time of Happiness, and visiting the Pride of the Creation, upon him be peace and blessings, as he is carrying out the duty of his mission. We know that he is a proof of Divine Unity so brilliant that he illuminates the whole of the earth and the two faces of time, the past and future, and disperses the darkness of unbelief and misguidance.)

Come, we will draw nearer; we must be acquainted with him. Look! What brilliant decorations he has, more than a thousand of them. (A thousand decorations signify the miracles of Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, which, according to meticulous researchers, number around one thousand) How forcefully he speaks!  How pleasant his conversation! During these fifteen days I have learnt a little of what he says, you could learn the same from me. See, he is speaking about the miracle-displaying sovereign of that country. He says that that glorious sovereign has sent him to us. See, he is displaying such wonders that we are bound to admit that he is a special envoy of the sovereign.

Look carefully, it is not only the creatures on this peninsula that are listening to what he says; he is having his voice heard in wonderful fashion by the whole country. Near and far, everyone is trying to listen to his discourse. Not only human beings but also animals are listening to him. Look, even the mountains are listening to the commandments he has brought so that they are stirring in their places.  Those trees move to the place to which he points. He brings forth water wherever he wishes.  He even makes his fingers like an abundant spring, and gives to drink from them. Look, that important lamp (the moon) in the dome of the palace splits into two at his gesture. (The important lamp is the moon, which split into two at his gesture. That is, as Mawlana Jami remarked: ‘That unlettered one who never wrote, wrote with the pen of his finger an alif [the first letter of the Arabic alphabet] on the page of the skies and made one forty into two fifties.’ That is, before it split, the moon resembled the Arabic letter mim, the mathematical value of which is forty. After splitting, it became two crescents resembling two nuns, the value of which is fifty.)

That means this whole land together with all the beings in it recognizes that he is an envoy. As though understanding that he is the most eminent and true translator of an unseen miracle-displaying one, and the herald of his sovereignty, and the discloser of his talisman, and a trustworthy envoy communicating his commandments, they heed and obey him. All those around him who are sensible affirm whatever he says. Indeed, through submitting to his commands and answering his beckoning, everything in this land—the mountains and the trees, etc.—and the huge light that illuminates everywhere, also affirm him. (The huge light is the sun. On one occasion, the noble Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, was sleeping in the arms of ‘Ali, may God be pleased with him, who did not wake him up out of deep love and respect for him. When the Prophet woke up, the sun was about to set, and ‘Ali had not been able to perform the afternoon prayer. Upon the Prophet’s order, the earth revolved a little backwards and the sun appeared above the horizon, so ‘Ali could perform the prayer. This is one of the famous miracles of the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings.)

So, O friend! Could there be any lie or deception in the information which this most illustrious, magnificent, and serious of beings, who bears a thousand decorations from the royal treasury of the king, gives with fullest conviction? Could there be any deception in the information which is confirmed by all the country’s notables, about the miracle-displaying king, and in his description of his attributes and communication of his commands? If you consider it possible that there could be deception in them, then you have to deny this palace, those lamps, and this congregation, both their existence and their reality. If you can, raise any objections against these, but you will see that they will be refuted by the power of the proof.

The Qur’an is another greatest evidence of God’s Existence and Oneness

Come, O friend, who must have come to your senses a little! I will show you further proof as strong as the sum of the previous eleven proofs. See this illustrious decree, which had descended from above and which everyone looks upon with full attention out of either amazement or veneration. That being with a thousand decorations is explaining its meaning to everyone. The decree has so brilliant a style that it attracts everyone’s admiration, and it speaks of matters so important and serious that everyone feels compelled to give ear to it. For it describes distinctively all the acts, attributes, and commands of the one who governs this whole land, who made this palace, and exhibits these wonders. And there is a mighty seal on the decree as a whole. Look!  There is also an irresistible seal on its every line and sentence, and, moreover, the meanings, truths, commandments, and instances of wisdom it provides are seen to be in a style particular to him which functions like a stamp or seal.

In short: That supreme decree shows that Supreme Being as clearly as the sun, so that anyone who is not blind can ‘see’ him.

So, O friend! If you have come to your senses, this is enough for now.  Do you still have any objections?

The stubborn man replied:

In the face of all these proofs I can only say:  All praise be to God for I have come to believe. I believe in a way as bright as the sun and clear as daylight that this land has a single Lord of Perfection, this world a single Owner of Majesty, this palace a single Maker of Grace. May God be pleased with you for saving me from my former obstinacy and foolishness. Each of the proofs you have offered is sufficient to demonstrate the truth. But with each successive proof, clearer and finer, more pleasant, agreeable, radiant levels of knowledge, scenes of acquaintanceship, and windows of love, were opened and revealed.  I listened and learned.

 

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