Does the old-testament mention prophet Muhammad to indicate his prophethood?
Almost all the previous Prophets predicted the Prophet Muhammad, upon him
be peace and blessings. Despite the changes they have undergone over time, we
can still find indications to his coming in the Torah, Psalms and the Gospels.
A Prophet from among the brothers of the Israelites who resembles Moses
For example, the following verses of the Torah promise the coming of the
Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings:
The Lord said to me [Moses]: ‘What they say is good. I will raise up for
them a Prophet like you among their brothers; I will put My words in his mouth,
and he will tell them everything I command him. If anyone does not listen to
My words that the Prophet speaks in My Name, I will Myself call him to account.’
It is clear from these verses that what is meant by ‘a Prophet like you among
their brothers’ is a Prophet who will come from the line of Ishmael, since Ishmael
is the brother of Isaac, who is the forefather of Moses’ people, the Children
of Israel. The only Prophet who came from the line of Ishmael after Moses and
resembled him in many ways, for example, in the bringing of a new law and waging
of war on his enemies, is the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings.
Also, the following verse of the Bible in Deuteronomy, 34.12 (Istanbul 1885),
clearly states that no Prophet like Moses did ever appear among the Israelites:
With respect to his virtues and awesome deeds, no Prophet like Moses, whom
the Lord knows face to face, no longer appeared among Israel.
The Qur’an points to the same fact:
We have sent to you a Messenger as a witness over you, even as We sent to
Pharaoh a Mes-senger. (al-Muzzammil, 73.15)
The sentence, I will put My words in his mouth, and he will tell them everything
I command him, in the verse in question, means that the promised Prophet will
be unlettered and speak whatever is revealed to him. God reiterates the same
fact in the Qur’an:
He does not speak out of [his own] desire. It is but a Revelation revealed.
The Prophet who shone forth from Mount Paran
The following verse,
The Lord came from Sinai and dawned over them from Seir; He shone forth from
Mount Paran. (Deuteromony, 33.2)
refers to the Prophethood of Moses, Jesus and Muhammad respectively, upon
them be peace. Sinai is the place where the Prophet Moses spoke to God and received
the Torah. Seir, a place in Pales-tine, is where the Prophet Jesus received
Divine Revelation. Paran is where God manifested Himself to mankind for the
last time through His Revelation to the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace
Paran is a mountain range in Makka. It is mentioned in the Torah (Genesis,
21.19-21) as the area in the desert where Hagar was left by her husband Abraham,
upon him be peace, to live with her son, Ishmael. The well of Zamzam appeared
in it. As is stated explicitly in the Qur’an (14.35–7), Abraham left Hagar and
Ishmael in the valley of Makka, which was then an uninhabited place within the
mountain ranges of Paran.
The verse in Deuteromony, according to the Arabic version published in London
in 1944 and the Ottoman Turkish version published in Istanbul in 1885), continues:
He came with myriads of holy ones; in his right hand appeared to them the
fire of the Shari‘a.
This verse refers to the promised Prophet, Muhammad, upon him be peace and
blessings, who would have numerous Companions of the highest degree of sainthood.
The fire of the Shari‘a alludes to the fact that the promised Prophet would
be allowed, and even ordered, to fight against his enemies.
Other verses in the Old Testament:
In the Psalms of David, there is the following verse:
O God, send to us after the interregnum (after the latest of the successive
prophets) one who will establish (Your) way.’1
Here, ‘one who will establish (Your) way’ refers to the Prophet Muhammad,
upon him be peace and blessings.
The following verse is from the Gospels:
A verse from the Torah says:
Surely God said to Abraham: ‘Hagar will certainly bear children. There will
appear from her sons one whose hand will be above all, and the hands of all
others will be opened to him in reverence.’2
Another verse from the Torah:
And He said, ‘O Moses, surely I will raise up for them a Prophet like you,
from among their brothers (that is, from among the children of Ishmael); I will
put my Word in his mouth, and he will tell them everything I command him. If
anyone does not listen to my words that the prophet speaks in my name, I Myself
will call him to account.’ (Deuteronomy, 18:18-19.)
A third verse from the Torah:
Moses said: ‘O my Lord, I have found in the Torah a community, as the best
of the communities, that will be raised for (the benefit) of mankind; they
enjoin the good and forbid the evil, and they believe in God. Let it be my community!’
(God) said: ‘That is the community of Muhammad.’3
This is a verse from the Psalms:
O David, a Prophet will come after you, named Ahmad (Muhammad), the Truthful
and the Lord, and his community will be forgiven.4
From the Seven ‘Abdullahs, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al- ‘As, who made extensive
studies of earlier Divine books, ‘Abdullah ibn Salam, who was the first to embrace
Islam from amongst the famous Jewish scholars, and the renowned scholar Ka‘b
ibn al-Akhbar from amongst the foremost scholars of the Israelites, all pointed
out the following verse in the Torah, which was not then corrupted to its present
extent. The verse, after addressing Moses, addresses the Prophet to come in
the following strain:
O Prophet, verily We have sent you as a witness, a bearer of good tidings,
a warner and a protection for the unlettered. You are My slave; I have named
you ‘the Reliant on God’, who are not harsh and stern, and not clamorous in
the marketplaces; who do not repel the evil with evil, but instead pardon
and forgive. God will certainly not take away his life until He straightens
a crooked nation by means of him (by causing them) to proclaim ‘There is no
Another verse from the Torah states:
Muhammad is the Messenger of God; his birthplace is Makka, he will emigrate
to Tayba, the center of his rule is Damascus, and his community are unceasingly
occupied with praise of God.6
In this verse, for the word Muhammad, a Syriac word meaning Muhammad is
Another verse from the Torah:
You are My slave and Messenger; I have named you ‘the Reliant on God’.7
This verse is also addressed to a Prophet who will emerge after Moses from
the progeny of Ishmael, the cousins of the children of Isaac.
Here is another verse from the Torah:
My slave is a ‘chosen one’, who is not harsh, nor he is stern.8
The meaning of ‘Mukhtar’, a chosen one, is the same as ‘Mustafa’, a name
of Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings.
The Prophet who will come after Jesus is referred to as ‘the Master of the
world’ in several places in the Gospels. (John, 14:30)
This verse of the Gospel, which has come to describe him,
With him is an iron staff with which he will fight, as will his community.9
indicates that a Prophet will come with a sword to wage Jihad. In agreement
with this verse of the Gospel, the following Qur’anic verse at the end of Sura
al-Fath (Victory), which refers to some other verses of the Gospel as well as
the one mentioned above, also states that his community, like him, will be under
the obligation of waging Jihad.
And their similitude in the Gospel is: like a seed that sends forth its blade,
then makes it strong; it then becomes thick, and it stands in its own stem,
filling the sowers with wonder and delight, so that it fills the unbelievers
with rage at them. (48:29)
In the Torah, there is the following verse:
The flags of the holy ones are with him, on his right. (Deuteronomy, 33:2)10
In this verse, the Companions of the Prophet are described as ‘the holy
ones’, that is, his Companions are blessed, righteous, saintly friends of God.
In Chapter 42 of the Book of Isaiah, there are the following verses:
Here is my servant, whom I uphold, my chosen one in whom I delight; I will
put my spirit on him and he will bring justice to the nations. He will not shout
or cry out, or raise his voice in the streets. A bruised reed he will not break,
and a smoldering wick he will not snuff out. In faithfulness he will bring forth
justice; he will not falter or be discouraged till he establishes justice on
earth. In his law the islands will put their hope. (Isaiah, 42:1-4)
These verses are certain to describe the Prophet Muhammad, who would come
in the last phase of human history.
There are the following verses in Chapter 4 of the Book of Micah:
In the last days the mountain of the Lord’s temple will be established as
chief among the mountains; it will be raised above the hills, and peoples will
stream to it. Many nations will come and say, “Come, let us go up the mountain
of the Lord, to the house of God. He will teach us His ways, so that we may
walk in His paths.” (Micah, 4:1-2)
These verses obviously describe the Mount Arafat, the most blessed mountain
of the world, and the nation of Muhammad, upon him be peace, together with the
prayers and praises that would be offered by the pilgrims who would flock there
from all climes.
The following verses are from Chapter 72 of Psalms:
He will rule from sea to sea
and from the River to the ends of the earth.
The desert tribes will bow before him
and his enemies will lick the dust.
The kings of Tarshish and of distant shores
will bring tribute to him;
the kings of the Yemen and Seba
will present him gifts.
All kings will bow down to him
and all nations will serve him.
For he will deliver the needy who cry out,
the afflicted who have no-one to help.
He will take pity on the weak and the needy
and save the needy from death.
He will rescue them from oppression and violence
for precious is their blood in his sight.
Long may he live!
May people ever pray for him and bless him all day long.
May his name endure for ever;
may it continue as long as the sun.
All nations will be blessed through him.
and they will call him blessed. (Psalms, 72:8-17)
These verses describe the Prophet Muhammad, the Pride of the World, in a
very clear way. Since the Prophet David, has a prophet come other than the Prophet
Muhammad, upon him be peace, who has spread his religion from east to west,
to whose name many rulers pay tribute, and whose way so many obey with deep
adoration for him, and on whom one fifth of mankind call, every day, God’s peace
and blessings? Is there anyone who fits this description other than the Prophet
Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings?
1. Although it does not exist word for word in the present editions of the
Bible, it is recorded in Hujjat Allah ‘ala al-‘Alamin fi Mu’jizat al-Sayyid
al-Mursalin by Yusuf Nahbani, p. 104.
2. Although it does not exist word for word in the present versions of the
Bible, it is recorded by ‘Ali al-Qari in his Sharh al-Shifa’, 1:743. However,
we read in the Torah, the following verses:
I will make the son of the maidservant (Hagar) into a nation.(Genesis, 21:13).
Hagar, lift the boy up and take him by the hand, for I will make him into a
great nation (21:18).
3. ‘Ali al-Qari, al-Shifa’ al-Sharif, 1:746.
4. Ali al-Qari, al-Shifa’ al-Sharif, 1:746.
5. Bukhari, Buyu’, 50; I. Hanbal, Musnad, 2:174; Darimi, 1:14-15.
6. Darimi, 1:14-15; Abu Na‘im, Dala’il al-Nubuwwa, 1:72.
7. Kastalani, al-Mawahib al-Ladunniya, 6:192.
8. ‘Ali al-Qari, ibid., 1:739.
9. Yusuf Nahbani, Hujjat Allah ‘ala al-‘Alamin fi Mu’jizat al-Sayyid al-Mursalin,
10. This is almost the same in many versions of the
Bible, i.e., in the one published by The Bible Company established in Istanbul, but we come across
a different translation, if not an alteration, in the version published by
Gideon International, which reads: ‘He came with myriads of holy ones from the
south, from his mountain slopes’ (Deuteronomy, 33:2).